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Book of Leinster 1150 A.D.


orignal translation by christian monks

Book of Leinster 1150 A.D. (with some variant readings from the Book of Formoy) Irish Texts Society First redaction (R1) [ ] = glossarial matter in text

1. In principio fecit Deus Cawlum et Terram, i.e., God made Heaven and

Earth at the first, [and He Himself hath no beginning nor ending].

2. He made first the formless mass, and the light of angels, [on the first

Sunday]. He made firmament [on the Monday]. He made earth and

seas [on the Tuesday]. He made sun and moon and the stars of

Heaven [on the Wednesday]. He made birds [of the air] and reptiles

[of the sea on the Thursday]. He made beasts [of the earth] in

general, and Adam to rule over them, [on the Friday]. Thereafter God

rested [on the Saturday] from the accomplishment of a new Creation,

[but by no means from its governance].

3. [Thereafter] He gave the bailiffry of Heaven to Lucifer, with the nine

orders of the Angels of Heaven. He gave the bailiffry of Earth to

Adam [and to Eve, with her progeny]. [Thereafter] Lucifer sinned, so

that he was leader of a third of the host of angels. The King confined

him with a third of the host of angels in his company, in Hell. And

God said unto the Foe of Heaven: [Haughty is this Lucifer], unite et

confundamus consilium eius.

4. Thereafter Lucifer had envy against Adam, for he was assured that this

would be given him [Adam], the filling of Heaven in his [Lucifer's]

room. Wherefore he [Iofer Niger] came in the form of the serpent, and

persuaded [Adam and] Eve to sin, in the matter of eating of the apple

from the forbidden tree. Wherefore Adam was expelled from Paradise

into common earth.

5. Thereafter the Lord came to them, and He said unto Adam, Terra es et

in terram ibis [i.e., of earth was he made and into earth shall he go].

In sudore uultus fui comedes panem tuum [i.e., he shall not obtain

satisfaction without labor]. He said further unto the woman: Cum

dolore et gemitu paries filios tuos et filias tuas [i.e., it shall be with

... insufferable pain that thou shalt bring forth thy sons].

6. The progeny of Adam sinned [thereafter], namely the elder of the sons

of Adam, Cain the accursed, who slew his brother Abel ... [through his

jealousy?] and through his greed, with the bone of a camel, as learned

men say. [In this manner?] began the kin-murders of the world.

7. As for Seth, one of the three sons of Adam [who had progeny], of him

are the men of the whole world.

Noe s. Lamech s. Mathusalem s. Enoch s. Iared s.

Malalahel s. Cainan s. Enos s. Seth s. Adam

For it is Noe who is the second Adam, to whom the men of all the

world are traced. For the Flood drowned the whole seed of Adam,

except Noe with his three sons, Sem, Ham, Iafeth, and their four wives

Coba, Olla, Oliva, Olivana.

Afterwards, when God brought a Flood over the whole world, none of

the people of the world escaped from the Flood except it be the people

of that ark - Noe with his three sons, and the wife of Noe, the wives

of his sons.

Ut dixit poeta,

A host that a wintry death would not subdue

Noe, there was no hero's weakness,

A story with horror has been made clear with


Sem, Ham, and Iafeth.

Women without evil colour, great excellences,

above the Flood without extinctions,

Coba, vigorous was the white swan,

Olla, Oliva, Olivana.

8. Now Sem settled in Asia, Ham in Africa, Iafeth in Europe -

Sem settled in pleasant Asia;

Ham with his progeny in Africa noble Iafeth and his

sons, it is they who settled in Europe.

Sem had thirty sons, including Arfaxad, Assur, and Persius. Ham had

thirty sons, including Chus and Chanaan. Iafeth had fifteen including

Dannai, Gregus, Hispanius, Gomer. Or it is twenty-seven sons that Sem


Thirty sleek sons, a brilliant fact,

they sprang from Ham, son of Noe

twenty-seven who are from Sem,

and fifteen from Iafeth.

9. [With regard to] Iafeth [son of Noe], of him is the northern side of Asia

- namely Asia Minor, Armenia, Media, the People of Scythia; and of him

are the inhabitants of all Europe.

Grecus s. Iafeth, of him is Grecia Magna, Grecia Parva and

Alexandian Greece. Espanus s. Iafeth from whom are the Hispani.

Gomer son of Iafeth had two sons, Emoth and Ibath. Emoth, of

him is the northern people of the world. Ibath had two sons,

Bodb and Baath. Bodb, who had a son Dohe.

Elinus son of Dohe had three sons, Airmen, Negua, Isacon. As for

Airmen, he had five sons, Gutus, Cebidus, Uiligothus, Burgundus,

Longbardus. Negua had three sons, Saxus, Boarus, Uandalus. Isacon,

moreover, one of the three sons of Elenus, he had four sons, Romanus,

Francus, Britus, Albanus.

This is that Albanus who first took Albania, with his children, and of

him is Alba named: so he drove his brother across the Sea of Icht,

and from him are the Albanians of Latium of Italy.

10. Magog, son of Iafeth, of his progeny are the peoples who came to

Ireland before the Gaedil: to wit Partholan s. Sera s. Sru s. Esru s.

Bimbend (sic) s. Magog s. Iafeth; and Nemed s. Agnomain s. Pamp s. Tat

s. Sera s. Sru; and the progeny of Nemed, the Gaileoin, Fir Domnann,

Fir Bolg and Tuatha De Danann. As the poet said,

Magog son if Iafeth there is cerainty of his progeny; of them

was Parthalon of Banba -decorous was his achievement.

Of them was noble Nemed son of Agnomain, unique; of them

were Gand and Genand, Sengand, free Slaine.

The numerous progeny of Elada, of them was Bres, no untruth:

son of Elada expert in arms, son of Delbaeth son of Net.

S. Inda, s. Allda -Allda who was s. Tat, s. Tabarn s. Enda, s.

Baath, [son of] pleasant Ibath.

S. Bethach s. Iardan s. Nemed grandson of Paimp: Pamp s. Tat

s. Sera s. Sru s. white Braiment.

Of Braiment s. Aithecht, s. Magog, great in reknown: there

happened in their time a joint appearance against a Plain.

11. Baath, [one of the two sons of Ibath] s. Gomer s. Iafeth, of him are the

Gaedil and the people of Scythia. He had a son, the noble

eminent man whose name was Feinus Farsaid. [It is he who was one of

the seventy-two chieftains who went for the building of Nemrod's

Tower, whence the languages were dispersed.]

Howbeit, Nemrod himself was son of Cush s. Ham s. Noe. This is

that Feinius aforesaid who brought the People's Speech from the

Tower: and it is he who had the great school, learning the

multiplicity of languages.

12. Now Feinius had two sons: Nenual, [one of the two] whom he left in the

princedom of Scythia behind him; Nel, the other son, at the Tower was

he born. Now he was a master of all the languages; wherefore one

came [to summon him] from pharao, in order to learn the multiplicity of

languages from him. But Feinius came out of Asia to Scythia, whence

he had gone for the building of the Tower; so that he died in the

princedom of Scythia, at the end of forty years, and passed on the

chieftainship to his son, Nenual.

13, At the end of forty two years after the building of the Tower, Ninus

son of Belus took the kingship of the world. For no other attempted

to exercise authority over the peoples or to bring the multitude of

nations under one had, and under tax and tribute, but he alone.

Aforetime there had been chieftains; he who was noblest and most in

favour in the community, he it was who was chief counsellor for every

man: who should avert all injustice and further all justice. No

attempt was made to invade or to dominate other nations.

14. Now that is the time when Gaedel Glas, [from whom are the Gaedil] was

born, of Scota d. Pharao. From her are the Scots named, ut dictum est


Feni are named from Feinius a meaning without secretiveness:

Gaedil from comely Gaedel Glas, Scots from Scota.

15, It is Gaedel Glas who fashioned the Gaelic language out of the seventy-

two languages: there are their names, Bithynian, Scythian, etc. Under

poeta cecinit

The languages of the world, see for yourselves Bithynia,

Scythia, Cilicia, Hyreania, Gothia, Graecia, Germania, Gallia with

horror, Pentapolis, Phrygia, Palmatia, Dardania.

Pamphylia, Mauretania, populous Lycaonia, Bacctria, Creta,

Corsica, Cypros Thessalia, Cappadocia, noble Armenia, Raetia,

Sicilia, Saracen-land, Sardinia.

Belgia, Boeotia, Brittania, tuneful Rhodos, Hispania, Roma,

Rhegini, Phoenicia, India, golden Arabia, Mygdonia, Mazaca,


Parthia, Caria, Syria, Saxones, Athenae, Achaia, Albania,

Hebraei, Arcadia, clear Galatia, Troas, Thessalia, Cyclades.

Moesia, Media, Persida, Franci, Cyrene, Lacedaemonia,

Langobardi, Thracia, Numidia, Hellas (?) - hear it! Lofty Italia,

Ethipia, Egypt.

That is the tally of languages without tarnish out of which

Gaedel cut Gaedelic: known to me is their roll of

understanding, the groups, the manifold languages.

16. Now Sru s. Esru s. Gaedel, he it is who was chieftain for the Gaedil who

went out of Egypt after Pharao was drowned [with his host in the Red

Sea of Israel]: Seven hundred and seventy years from the Flood till


Four hundred and forty years from that time in which Pharao was

drowned, and after Sru s. Esru came out of Egypt, till the time when

the sons of Mil came into Ireland, to wit, Eber and Eremon:

whereanent [one] said -


Forty and four hundred of years - it is no falsehood -from

when the people of God came, be ye certain over the surface

of Mare Rubrum, till they landed in Scene from the clear sea,

they, the Sons of Mil, in the land of Ireland.

17. Four ships' companies strong went Sru out of Egypt. There were

twenty-four wedded couples and three hirelings for every ship. Sru

and his son Eber Scot, they were the chieftains of the expedition. [It

is then that Nenual s. Baath s. Nenual s. Feinius Farsaid, prince of

Scythia, died: and] Sru also died immediately after reaching Scythia.

18. Eber Scot took [by force] the kingship of Scythia from the

progeny of Nenual, till he fell at the hands of Noemius s. Nenual.

There was a contention between Noemius and Boamain s. Eber Scot.

Boamain took the kingship till he fell at the hands of Noemius.

Noemius took the princedom till he fell at the hands of Ogamain s.

Boamain in vengeance for this father. Ogamain took the kingship till

he died. Refill s. Noemius took the kingship till he fell at the hands of

Tat s. Ogamain. Thereafter Tat fell at the hands of Refloir s. Refill.

Thereafter there was a contention for the princedom between Refloir

[grandson of Noemius and Agnomain s. Tat, until Refloir fell at the

hands of Agnomain.

19, For that reason was the seed of Gaedil driven forth upon the sea, to wit

Agnomain and Lamfhind his son, so that they were seven years on the

sea, skirting the world on the north side. More than can be reckoned

are the hardships which they suffered. [The reason why the name

Lamfhind was given to the son of Agnomain was, because not greater

was the radiance of candles than his hands, at the towing.] They had

three ships with a coupling between them, that none of them should

move away from the rest. They had three chieftains after the death of

Agnomain on the surface of the great Caspian Sea, Lamfhind and Allot

and Caicher the druid.

20. It is Caicher the druid who gave the remedy to them, when the

Siren was making melody to them: sleep was overcoming them at

the music. This is the remedy which Caicher found for them, to melt

wax in their ears. It is Caicher who spoke to them, when the great

wind drove them into the Ocean, so that they suffered much with

hunger and thirst there: till at the end of a week they reached the

great promontory which is northward from the Rhipaean Mountain, and

in that promontory they found a spring with the taste of wine, and

they feasted there, and were three days and three nights asleep there.

But Caicher the druid said: Rise, said he, we shalal not rest until we

reach Ireland. What place is that 'Ireland' said Lamfhind s. Agnomain.

Further than Scythia is it, said Caicher. It is not ourselves who shall

reach it, but our children, at the end of three hundred years from


21. Thereafter they settled in the Macotic Marshes, and there a son was

born to Lamfhind, Eber Glunfhind: [white marks which were on his

knees]. He it is who was chieftain after his father. His grandson was

Febri [Glunfhind (Sic)]. His grandson was Nuadu.

22. Brath s. Death s. Ercha s. Allot s. Nuadu s. Nenual s. Febri Glas s. Agni

find s. Eber Glunfhind s. Lamfhind s. Agnomain s. Tat s. Agnomain s.

Boamain s. Eber Scot s. Sru s. Esru s. Gaedel Glas s. Nel s. Feinius


It is that Brath who came out of the Marshes along the Torrian Sea to

Crete and to Sicily. They reached spain thereafter. They took Spain

by force.

23. As for Agnomain s. Tat, he is the leader of the Gaedil who came out of

Scythia. He had two sons, Lamfhind and Allot. Lamfhind had one son,

Eber Glunfhind. Allot had a son, Eber Dub, at the same time as the

sojourn in the Marshes. They had two grandsons in joint rule,

Toithecht s. Tetrech s. Eber Dub, and Nenual s. Febri s. Agni s. Eber

Glunfhind; there was also Soithecht s. Mantan s. Caicher.

Ucce and Occe, two sons of Allot s. Nenual s. Nemed s. Allot s. Ogamain

s. Toithecht s. Tetrech s. Eber Dub s. Allot.

24. Four ships' companies strong came the Gaedil to Spain: in every ship

fourteen wedded couples and seven unwed hirelings. Brath, a ship's

company. Ucce and Occe, two ships' companies: [Two brethren were

they, the sons of Allot s. Nenual s. Nemed s. Allot s. Ogamain], Mantan

[s. Caicher the druid s. Ercha s. (Coemthecht)] a ship's company. So

they broke three battles after going into Spain: a battle against the

Tuscans, a battle against the Langobardi, and a battle against the

Barchu. But there came a plague upon them, and four and twenty of

their number died, including Occe and Ucce. Out of the two ships

none escaped, save twice five men, including En s. Occe and Un s.


25. Brath had a good son named Breogan, by whom was built the Tower and

the city - Braganza was the city's name. From Breogan's Tower it was

that Ireland was seen; an evening of a day of winter Ith s. Breogan

saw it. Unde Gilla Coemain cecinit -

Gaedel Glas, of whom ar the Gaedil, son was he of Nel, with

store of wealth: he was mighty west and east, Nel, son of

Feinius Farsaid.

Feinius had two sons - I speak truth -Nel our father and

Nenual, Nel was born at the Tower in the east, Nenual in

Scythia, bright as a shield.

After Feinius, the hero of ocean, there was great envy

between the brethren: Nel slew Nenual, who was not gentle;

the High King was expelled.

He went into Egypt through valour till he reached powerful

Pharao; till he bestowed Scota, of no scanty beauty, the

modest, nimble daughter of pharao.

Scota bore a son to noble Nel, from whom was born a perfect

great race: Gaedel Glas was the name of the man -green were

his arms and his vesture.

Fierce Esru was son to him, who was a Lord with heavy arms:

the son of Esru, Sru of the ancient hosts to whom was meet

all the fame attributed to him.

Sru son of Esru son of Gaedel, our ancestor, rejoicing in

troops, he it is who went northward to his house, over the

surface of the red Mare Rubrum.

The crews of four ships were the tale of his host along the

red Mare Rubrum: in his house of planks, we may say, twenty-

four wedded couples.

The prince of Scythia, it ws a clear fact, the youth whose

name was Nenual, it is then he died yonder in his house -

when the Gaedil arrived.

Eber Scot of the heroes assumed [the kingdom] over the

progeny of Nenual unashamed, till he fell, with no gentle

kindness, at the hands of Noemius son of Nenual.

The strong son of Eber thereafter, who had the name Boamain,

of perfect purity, to the shore of the Caspian Sea was he

king, till he fell by the hand of Noemius.

Noemius son of Nenual of the strength settled in Scythia,

chequered like a shield: the perfect fair prince fell by the

hand of Ogamain son of Boamain.

Thereafter Ogamain was prince after Noemius of good strength:

till he died in his territory, unchurched: after him Refill was


Thereafter Refill fell by the hand of Tait son of Ogmain: Tait

fell, though he was not feeble,' by the hand of Refloir son to


Refloir and Agnomain without blemish, seven years were they

in contention, till Refloir fell with tumult by the victorious

hand of Agnomain.

Noinel and Refill with a [spear] point two sons of Refloir son

of Refill, they drove Agnomain out over the raging sea, great

and green

Good were the chieftains, it was sufficient, who came out of

Scythia; Agnomain, Eber without blemish, the two sons of Tait

son of Ogamain.

Allot, Lamfhind of the green hand, conspicuous the two sons of

very bright Agnomain, Caicher and Cing, fame with victory the

two good sons of Eber of the red-steed.

The number of their ships, three ships coming over heavy

waves; three score [the crew] of every ship, a clear saying,

and women every third score.

Agnomain died, it was no reproach in the islands of the great

Caspian Sea. The place where they were for a year they found

very secret.

They reached the full Libyan Sea, a sailing of six complete

summer days; Glas son of Agnomain, who was not dspicable,

died there in Cercina.

A fair island found they there on the Libyan Sea of warrior-

blades: a season over a year, with fame, their sojourn in that


They sail on the sea, a brilliant fact both by day and by

night: the sheen of the hands of lustrous Lamfhind was like to

fair candles.

Four chieftains had they who were not despicable, after

coming over the Libyan Sea: Allot, Lamfhind wsift over the

ocean, Cing and his brother Caicher.

Caicher found a remedy for them yonder for the melody of the

Sirens: this is the remedy that fair Caicher found, to melt wax

in their ears.

They found a spring and a land at the Rhipaean headland with

great might, having the taste of wine thereafter: their thirst

overcame them mightily.

Soundly, soundly they slept to the end of three days without

sorrow, till Caicher the faithful druid wakened the noble men


It is Caicher, (a brilliant fulfilment!) who made a prophecy to

them, at the Rhipaean Mountains with a headland -"We have no

rest until Ireland."

"In what place is lofty Ireland?" said Lamfhind the violent

warrior. "Very far" said Caicher then, "It is not we who reach

it, but our children."

They advanced in their battalion with venom, southward past

the Rhipaean headlands; the progeny of Gaedel, with purity,

they landed at the Marshes.

A glorious son was born there to Lamfhind son of Agnomain;

Eber Glunfhind, pure the gryphon, the curl-haired grandfather

of Febri.

The family of Gaedel, the brisk and white, were three hundred

years in that land: they dwelt there thenceforward, until Brath

the victorious came.

Brath, the noble son of Faithful Death came to Crete, to Sicily,

the crew of four ships of a safe sailing, right-hand to Europe,

on to Spain.

Occe and Ucce without blemish, the two sons of Allot son of

Nenual; Mantan son of Caicher, faithful Brath, they were the

four leaders.

Fourteen men with their wives made the crew for every ship

full of warriors, and six noble hirelings; they won three

battles in Spain.

Lofty the first battle - I shall not conceal it -which they won

against the host of the Tuscans; a battle against tyhe Bachra

with violence, and a battle against the Langobardi.

It was after the sinister battle that there came to them a

plague of one day: the people of the ships of the sons of Allot

without fault were all dead except ten persons.

Un and En came out of it, two noble sons of the strong

chieftains: thereafter was Bregon born, father of Bile the

strong and raging.

He broke a great number of fights and battles against the

many-coloured host of Spain: Bregon of the shouts of valorous

deeds, of the combats, by him was built Brigantia.

Bregon son of Brath, gentle and good, he had a son, Mil: the

seven sons of Mil - good their host -including Eber and


Along with Dond, and Airech with battle, including Ir, along

with Arannan, including Armorgen with bright countenance,

and along with Colptha of the sword.

The ten sons of Bregon without falsehood, Brega, Fuat, and

Murthemne, Cualnge, Cuala, fame though it were, Ebleo, Nar,

Ith, and Bile.

Ith son of Bregon with tuneful fame came at the first into

Ireland: he is the first of men who inhabited it, of the noble

seed of the powerful Gaedil.

26. Let us cease [at this point] from the stories of the Gaedil, that we may

tell of the seven peoples who took Ireland before them. Cessair, d.

Bith s. Noe took it, forty days before the Flood. Partholon s. Sera

three hundred years after the Flood. Nemed s. Agnomain of the Greeks

of Scythia, at the end of thirty years after Partholon. The Fir Bolg

thereafter. The Fir Domnann thereafter. The Gailioin thereafter [al.,

along with them]. The Tuatha De Danann thereafter. [The sons of Mil

thereafter as Fintan said]. Unde Fintan cecinit,

Ireland - whatever is asked of me I know pleasantly, Every

taking that took her from the beginning of the tuneful world.

Cessair came from the East, the woman was daughter of Bith;

with her fifty maidens, with her three men.

Flood overtook Bith in his Mountain, it is no secret; Ladra in

Ard Ladrand, Cessair in her Nook.

But as for me, He buried me, the Son of God, above [the]

company; He snatched the Flood from me above heavy Tul


I had a year under the Flood in strong Tul Tuinde; I found

nothing for my sustenance, an unbroken sleep were best.

I was in Ireland here, my journey was everlasting, till

Partholon reached her, from the East, from the land of Greeks.

I was here in Ireland and Ireland was desert, till the son of

Agnomain reached Nemed, brilliant his fashion.

The Fir Bolg and Fir Gailian came, it was long ago; the Fir

Domnann came, they landed on a headland in the west.

Thereafter the Tuath De came, in their masses of fog, so that

there was sustenance for me though it was a long lifetime.

The sons of Mil came from Spain, from the south, so that there

was sustenance for me at their hands, though they were

strong in battle.

A long life fell to my lot, I shall not conceal it; till Faith

overtook me from the King of Heaven of clouds.

I am Fintan the white son of Bochna, I shall noot conceal it;

after the Flood here I am a noble great sage.



27. Incipit de The Takings of Ireland. Thereafter Cessair daughter of

Bith s. Noe took it, ut poeta dixit, forty days before the Flood.

This is the reason for her coming, fleeing from the Flood: for Noe said

unto them: Rise, said he [and go] to the western edge of the world;

perchance the Flood may not reach it.

28. The crew of three ships arrived at Dun na mRarc in the territory of

Corco Daibne. Two of the ships were wrecked. Cessair with the crew

of her ship escaped, fifty women and three men: Bith s. Noe, of whom

is Sliab Betha (named) - there was he buried, in the great stone-heap

of Sliab Betha; Ladra the pilot, of whom is Ard Ladrand - he is the

firsst dead man who went under the soil of Ireland; Fintan s. Bochra,

of whom is "Fintan's Grave" over Tul Tuinde. Cessair died in Cul

Cessrach in Connachta, with her fifty maidens.

29, These are their names, ut Fintan cecinit


A just division we shared between us, myself and Bith and

bold Ladra; for peace and for reason was it done, in the

matter of the fifty magnificent maidens.

Seventeen women I took, including Cessair -Lot, Luam, Mall,

Mar, Froechar, Femar, Faible, Foroll, Cipir, Torrian, Tamall,

Tam, Abba, Alla, Baichne, Sille: that is the tale which we were


Seventeen Bith took, with Bairrfhind - Sella, Della, Duib,

Addeos, Fotra, Traige, Nera, Buana, Tamall, Tanna, Nathra,

Leos, Fodarg, Rodarg, Dos, Clos: be it heard -those were our

people further.

Sixteen thereafter with Ladra: Alba, Bona, Albor, Ail, Gothiam,

German, Aithne, Inde, Rodarg, Rinne, Inchor, Ain, Irrand, Espa,

Sine, Samoll: that was our fair company.


None of the seed of Adam took Ireland before the Flood but those.

30. Now Ireland was waste [thereafter], for a space of three hundred years,

[or three hundred and twelve, quod uerius est] till Partholon s. Sera

s. Sru came to it. He is the first who took Ireland after the Flood, on

a Tuesday, on the fourteenth of the moon, in Inber Scene: [for three

times was Ireland taken in Inber Scene]. Of the progeny of Magog son

of Iafeth was he, [ut dixi supra]: in the sixstieth year of the age of

Abraham, Partholon took Ireland.

31. Four chieftains strong came Partholon: himself and Laiglinne his son,

from whom is Loch Laighlinne in Ui mac Uais of Breg; Slanga and

Rudraige, the two other sons of Partholon, from whom are Sliab Slanga

and Loch Rudraige. When the grave of Rudraige was a-digging, the

lake there burst forth over the land.

32. Seven years had Partholon in Ireland when the first man of his people

died, ti wit, Fea, from whom is Mag Fea; for there was he buried, in

Mag Fea.

33. In the third year thereafter, the first battle of Ireland, which Partholon

won in Slemna of Mag Itha against Cichol clapperlag of the Fomoraig.

Men with single arms and single legs they were, who joined the battle

with him.

34. There were seven lake bursts in Ireland in the time of Partholon: Loch

Laighlinne in Ui mac Uais of Breg, Loch Cuan and Loch Rudraige in

Ulaid, Loch Dechet and Loch Mese and Loch Con in Connachta, and

Loch Echtra in Airgialla; for Partholon did not find more than three

lakes and nine rivers in Ireland before him - Loch Fordremain in Sliab

Mis of Mumu, Loch Lumnig on Tir Find, Loch Cera in Irrus; Aba Life,

Lui, Muad, Slicech, Samer (upon which is Ess Ruaid), Find, Modorn,

Buas, and Banna between Le and Elle. Four years before the death of

Partholon, the burst of Brena over the land.

35. Four plains were cleared by Partholon in Ireland: Mag Itha in Laigen,

Mag Tuired in Connachta, Mag Li in Ui mac Uais, Mag Ladrand in Dal

nAraide. For Partholon found not more than one plain in Ireland

before him, the Old Plain [of Elta] of Edar. this is why it is called the

"Old Plain" for never did branch of twig of a wood grow through it.

36. And it is there that Partholon died, five thousand men and four

thousand women, of a week's plague on the kalends of May. On a

Monday plauge killed them all except one man tantum - Tuan son of

Starn son of Sera nephew of Partholon: and God fashioned him in

many forms, and that man survived alone from the time of Partholon to

the time of Findian and of Colum Cille. So he narrated to them the

Takings of Ireland from the time of Cessair, the first who took, to that

time. And that is Tuan son of Cairell son of Muiredach Muinderg. Of

him the history-sage sang the following song -


Ye scholars of the Plain of fair, white Conn, of the land of the

men of Fal, as I relate, what company, after the creation of

the world, first lighted upon Ireland?

Ireland before the swift Flod, as I reckon her courses,

knowing, pure-white kemps found her, including Cessair

daughter of Bith.

Bith son of Noe of the many troops, though he overcame with

a trench-achievement, he died in warlike Sliab Betha; Ladra

died in Ard Ladrann.

Fintain went on a journey of weakness, his grave was found,

it ws a leap of impetuosity; he was not in haste into the

trench of a churchyeard, but a grave over Tul Tuinde.

To Dun na mBarc for a separation-festival faring without scale

of reckoning brought them; at the stone-heap, beside a

fruitful sea Cessair died in Cul Cessrach.

Forty days full-scanty the slender and graceful troop arrived

in their ship, before the noise of the Flood they landed on a

place of the land of Ireland.

He rose on a journey for truth-deciding by the might of the

King whom he used to adore; Fintan, who was a man with

tidings for lords, for mighty ones of the earth.

Three hundred years, I boast of it, I speak through the rules

which I reckon, pleasant Ireland, I proclaim it against the

soothsayers was waste, after the Flood.

Partholon the eminent came, a royal course across an oar-

beaten sea: his quartet of heroes, fair and faithful -among

them was the free-born Slanga.

Slanga, Laiglinne the brilliant, boardlike, noble and strong was

his canoe; these were his ready trio of chieftains, along with

the lordly Rudraige.

Plains were cleared of their great wood, by him, to get near to

his dear children; Mag Itha southward, a hill of victory-head,

Mag Li of ashes, Lag Lathraind.

Seven lake-bursts, thouugh ye measure them, with renown of

name, though ye should set them forth they filled, amid the

fetter of valleys, insular Ireland in his time.

Loch Laiglinne, bold Loch Cuan, the Loch of Rudraige, (he

was) a lord without law-giving, Loch Techet, Loch Oese

abounding in mead, Loch Cou, Loch Echtra full of swans.

Over Ireland of beauty of colour, as I relate every foundation

on the fortress of Bith he found not more than three lakes

before him.

Three lakes, vast and tideless (?) and nine rivers full of

beauty: Loch Fordremain, Loch Luimnig, Findloch over the

borders of Irrus.

The river of Life, the Lee let us mention, which every druid

humms who knows diana senga; the history of the old rivers

of Ireland has demonstrated the true height of the Flood.

Muad, Slicech, Samer, thou dost name it, Buas, a flood with the

fame-likeness of a summit, Modorn, Find with fashion of a

sword-blade (?) Banna between Lee and Eille.

He died after pride, with warriors, Partholon, of the

hundredfold troop: they were cut down with possessions, with

treasures, on the Old Plain of Elta of Edar.

This is why it is the forutnate Old Plain It is God the

fashioner who caused it: over its land which the sea-mouth cut

off no root or twig of a wood was found.

His grave is there according to men of truth, Although he had

no power among saints: Silent was his sleep under resting

places which are no pilgrimage-way for our scholars.

Three hundred years, though ye should know it, over lands

secret to the exalted, had the troop, brightly tuneful and

lasting, over age-old, noble Ireland.

Men, women, boys and girls, on the calends of May, a great

hindrance, the plaguing of Partholon in Mag Breg was no

unbroken summer-apportionment of peace.

It was thirty lean years that she was empty in the face of

war-champions, after the death of her host throughout a week,

in their troops upon Mag Elta.

Let us give adoration to the King of the Elements, to the good

Head, the Fortress of our people, whose is every troop, every

generation, whose is every head, every scholarship.

I am Ua Flaind who scatters truths; an apportionment with

kings hath he chosen; may everything whatsoever he may say

be a speech of grace, may it accord with holiness, ye scholars!



37. It was the four sons of Partholon who made the first division of Ireland

in the beginning, Er, Orba, Fergna, Feron. There were four men,

namesakes to them, amoung the sons of Mil, but they were not the

same. From Ath Cliath of Laigen to Ailech Neit, is the division of Er.

From Ath Cliath to the island of Ard Nemid, is the division of Orba.

From Ailech to Ath Cliath of Medraige, is the division of Feron. From

that Ath Cliath to Ailech Neit, is the division of Fergna. So that is

that manner they first divided Ireland.

38. Partholon had four oxen, that is the first cattle of Ireland. Of his

company was Brea, son of Senboth, by whom were a jouse, a flesh

[cauldron], and dwelling first made in Ireland. Of his company was

Samailiath, by whom were ale-drinking and suretyship first made in

Ireland. Of his company was Beoir, by whom a guesthouse was first

made in Ireland. As the poet saith


Partholon, whence he came to Ireland, reckon ye! on the day

when he reached across the sea, what was the land from which

Partholon came?

He came from Sicily to Greece -a year's journey, with no full

falsehood: a month's sailing from Greece westward, to


From Cappadocia he journeyed, a sailing of three days to

Gothia, a sailing of a month from white Gothia, to three-

cornered Spain.

After that he reached Inis Fail, to Ireland from Spain: on

Monday, the tenth without blemish one octad took Ireland.


He is the first man who took his wife in the time of Partholon

without falsehood: Fintan, who took the woman through combat

-Aife, daughter of Partholon.

Parthlolon went out one day, to tour his profitable land: His

wife and his henchman together he leaves behind him on the


As they were in his house, the two, a wonder unheard-of, she

made an advance to the pure henchman, he made no advance

to her.

Since he made her no answer promptly the henchman,

stubborn against an evil intention, she doffs her in

desperation -an impusive action for a good woman!

The henchman rose without uncertainty, a frail thing is

humanity -and came, a saying without pleasure, with Delgnat

to share her couch.

Insolent was the prank for a pleasant henchman which Topa of

tuneful strings wrought: to go by a rough trick, a happiness

without pleasure, with Delgnat, to share her couch.

Partholon, who was a man of knowledge, had a vat of most

sweet ale: out of which none could drink aught save through a

tube of red gold.

Thirst seized them after the deed, Topa and Delgnat, according

to truth: so that their two mouths drank their two drinks (?)

in the tube.

When they did it, a couple without remorse, there came upon

them very great thirst; soon they drank a bright coal-drink,

through the gilded tube.

Partholon arrived outside, after ranging the wilderness; there

were given to him, it was a slight disturbance, his vat and his


When he took the straight tube, he perceived upon it at once,

the taste of Topa's mouth as far as this, and the taste of

Delgnat's mouth.

A black, surly demon revealed the bad, false, unpleasant deed:

"Here is the taste of Topa's mouth" said he, "And the taste of

Delgnat's mouth."

Then said the sound son of Sera, the man called Partholon:

"though short the time we are outside, we have the right to

complain of you."

The man smote the woman's dog with his palm - it was no

profit -he slew the hound, it was a treasure that would be

slender; so that is the first jealousy of Ireland.

Degnat answered her husband: "Not upon us is the blame,

though bitter thou thinkest my saying it, truly, but it is upon


Though evil thou thinkest my saying it to thee, Partholon, its

right shall be mine: I am the 'one before one' here, I am

innocent, recompense is my due.

Honey with a woman, milk with a cat, food with one generous,

meat with a child, a wright within and an edge[d tool] one

before one, 'tis a great risk.'

The woman will taste the thick honey, the cat will drink the

milk, the generous will bestow the pure food, the child will eat

the meat.

The wright will lay hold of a tool, the one with the one will go

together: wherefore it is right to guard them well from the


That is the first adultery to be heard of made here in the

beginning: the wife of Partholon, a man of rank, to go to an

ignoble henchman.

He came after the henchman and slew him with anger: to him

there came not the help of God upon the Weir of the Kin-


The place where that was done, after its fashioning certainty -

great is its sweetness that was there of a day in the land of

Inis Ssaimera.

And that, without deceit, is the first judgement in Ireland so

that thence, with very noble judgement, is "the right of his

wife against Partholon."

Seventeen years had they thereafter, till there came the death

of that man; the battle of Mag Itha of the combats was one of

the deeds of Partholon.



Further of the voyaging of Partholon -

Good was the great company that Partholon had: maidens and

active youths, chieftains and champions. '

Totacht and strong Tarba, Eochar and Aithechbel, Cuaille,

Dorcha, Dam, the seven chief ploughmen of Partholon.

Liac and Lecmag with colour, Imar and Etrigi, the four oxen, a

proper group, who ploughed the land of Partholon.

Beoir was the name of the man, with his nobles and with his

people, who suffered a guest in his firm house, the first in

Ireland's island.

By that Brea son of Senboth a house was first, a cauldron on

fire; a feat that the pleasant Gaedil desert not, dwelling in


By Samaliliath were known ale-drinking and surety-ship: by

him were made thereafter worship, prayer, questioning.

The three druids of Partholon of the harbours, Fiss, Eolas,

Eochmarc: the names of his three chamions further, Milchu,

Meran, Muinechan.

The names of the ten noble daughters whom Partholon had,

and the names of his ten sons-in-law I have aside, it is a full


Aife, Aine, lofty Adnad, Macha, Mucha, Melepard, Glas and

Grenach, Auach and Achanach.

Aidbli, Bomnad and Ban, Caertin, Echtach, Athchosan, Lucraid,

Ligair, Lugaid the warrior, Gerber who was not vain of word.

Beothach, Iarbonel, Fergus, Art, Corb, who followed (?) without

sin, Sobairche, active Dobairche, were the five chieftains of

Nemed, good in strength.

Bacorb Ladra, who was a sound sage, he was Partholon's man

of learning: he is the first man, without uncertainty, who made

hospitality at the first.

Where they ploughed in the west was at Dun FInntain, though

it was very far: and they grazed grass of resting in the east

of Mag Sanais.

Bibal and Babal the white, were Partholon's two merchants:

Bibal brought gold hither, Babal brought cattle.

The first building of Ireland without sorrow, was made by

Partholon: the first brewing, churning, ale, a course with

grace, at first, in good and lofty Ireland.

Rimad was the firm tall-ploughman, Tairle the general head-

ploughamn: Fodbach was the share, no fiction is that, and

Fetain the coulter.

Broken was the name of the man, it was perfect, who first

wrought hidden shamefulness: it waas destroyed with a

scattering that was not evil, Partholon thought this to be


So these are the tidings of the first Taking of Ireland after

the Flood.


39. Now Ireland was waste thereafter, for a space of thirty years after

Partholon, till Nemed son of Agnomain of the Greeks of Scythia came

thither, with his four chieftains; [they were the four sons of Nemed].

Forty-four ships had he on the Caspian Sea for a year and a half, but

his ship alone reached Ireland. These are the four chieftains, Starn,

Iarbonel the Soothsayer, Annind, and Fergus Red-Side: they were the

four sons of Nemed.

40. There were four lake-bursts in Ireland in the time of Nemed: Loch Cal

in Ui Niallain, Loch Munremair in Luigne, Loch Dairbrech, Loch Annind

in Meath. When his grave [of Annind son of Nemed] was being dug

and he was a-burying, there the lake burst over the land.

41, It is Nemed who won the battle of Ros Fraechain against Gand and

Sengand, two kings of the Fomoraig, and the twain were slain there.

Two royal forts were dug by Nemed in Ireland, Raith Chimbaith in

Semne, Raith Chindeich in Ui Niallain. The four sons of Matan

Munremar dug Raith Cindeich in one day: namely, Boc, Roboc, Ruibne,

and Rotan. They were slain before the morrow in Daire Lige by Nemed,

lest they should improve upon the digging.

42. Twelve plains were cleared by Nemed in Ireland: Mag Cera, Mag Eba,

Mag Cuile Tolaid, and Mag Luirg in Connachta: Mag Seired in Tethba;

Mag Tochair in Tir Eogain; Mag Selmne in Araide; Mag Macha in

Airgialla; Mag Muirthemne in Brega; Mag Bernsa in Laighne; Leccmag

and Mag Moda in Mumu.


43. He won three battles agains the Fomoraig [or sea-rovers]: the battle of

Badbgna in Connachta, of Cnamros in Laigne, of Murbolg in Dal Riada.

After that, Nemed died of plague in Oilean Arda Nemid in Ui Liathain.

44. The progeny of Nemed were under great oppression after his time in

Ireland, at the hands of More, s. Dela and of Conand s. Febar [from

whom is the Tower of Conand named, which to-day is called Toirinis

Cetne. In it was the great fleet of the Fomoraig]. Two thirds of the

progeny, the wheat, and the milk of the people of Ireland (had to be

brought) every Samain to Mag Cetne. Wrath and sadness seized on the

men of Ireland for the burden of the tax. They all went to fight

against the Fomoraig. They had three champions, Semul s. Iarbonel the

Soothsayer s. Nemed, Erglan s. Beoan s. Starn s. Nemed, Fergus Red-

Side s. Nemed. Thirty thousand on sea, other thirty thousand on land,

these assaulted the tower. Conand and his progeny fell.

45. So, after that capture, More son of Dela came upon the, with the crews

of three-score ships, and they fell in a mutual slaughter. The sea

came up over the people of Ireland, and not one of them fled from

another, so severe was the battling: none escaped but one ship, in

which there were thirty warriors. They went forth, parting from

Ireland, fleeing from the sickness and taxation: Bethach died in

Ireland of plague; his ten wives survivied him for a space of twenty-

three years. Ibath and his son Baath went into the north of the

world. Matach and Erglan and Iartach, the three sons of Beoan, went

to Dobar and Iardobar in the north of Alba.

46. Semeon went in the lands of the Greeks. His progeny increased there

till they amounted to thousands. Slavery was imposed upon them by

the Greeks; they had to carry clay upon rough mountains so that

they became flowery plains. Thereafter they were weary of their

servitude, and they went in flight, five thousand strong, and made

them ships of their bags: [or, as the Quire of Druim Snechta says,

they stole the pinnaces of the king of Greece for coming therein].

Thereafter they came again into Ireland, their land of origin: that was

at the end of two hundred and thirty years after Nemed. These are

their five chiefs, Gand, Genand, Rudraige, Sengand and Slaine.

47. As for Fergus Red-Side and his son, Britain Mael of whom are all the

Britons in the world, they took Moin Conain and filled with their

progeny the great island, Britannia Insula: till Hengist and Horsa, the

two sons of Guictglis, King of the Old Saxons, came and conquered

them: and they drove the Britons over the borders of the Island.

These are the adventures of the progeny of Nemed after the taking of

Conand's Tower: unde the Historian cecinit


Great Ireland which the Gaedil regulate, I tell some of her

concerns: Great chiefs spear-armed took her, of the proud

race of Adam.

From Adam the truly tuneful, the ruthless, to the Flood, a

tumult that was prepared, none warmed her very powerful

household except Cessair of the fifty maidens.

Except Bith and Ladru - let us relate it -Fintan, with

darkness of the land, no man found it, who revealed the

stately superiority of Ireland, before the time of the Flood.

After the Flood of secret going three hundred years,

whoso relates it, he who was a bright crown for deeds of

valour, Partholon son of Sera, comes.

Notwithstanding every stately psalm-canon, the people of

Partholon the sinner -dead was the whole tally of his

household, upon the Old Plain, in the course of a week.

Six fives of years without increase, without a guard, it was

dark obscurity, Desert was every side to the proud sea;

Not a person took it save Nemed.

Nemed with wrath (?) of them all, with store of feters and

valour, he possessed the land of the warring of hosts,

after the destruction of the other companies.

He used to effect victory without hazards, Nemed, with

pride and intelligence: the son of Agnomain with

haughtiness, although his troop was weak, it was stately.

Starn, who fell at the hands of Mac Faebuir, Iarbonel the

Soothsayer, who was joyous, Ainnind with fetters of

leather, were the three venemous chieftains of Nemed.

Nemed who paid them in the matter of securities, it was a

pestilence of fire over a death-doom; in his time, with a

great noise of rushing, there was an outburst - four lakes.

Loch Munremair, a pleasant sea, of broad-ridged, firm fury;

Loch Dairbrech over a hedge of a king (?) Loch Cal and

Loch Ainnind.

Vigorously there were dug by his host two forts with

strength and firmness, Raith Cindeich in which he

apportioned weapons, Raith Cimbaeith in Semne.

Cleared by him, it was a road of pleasure, twelve plains of

good eye (-prospect), Mag Cera in Connachta of mists, Mag

Moda and Mag Eba.

Strong Mag Tochair was cleansed, Leemag of the great

plain of Muma, Mag Bernsa with a mystery of great graces,

Mag Cuile Tolad, Mag Lugad.

Mag Sered of drying-up of a river, Mag Semne of lightness

of colouring, Mag Luirg of little darkness of side, Mag

Muirthemne, Mag Macha.

The routs - a work to recount them - which he broke

against the warriors of Fomoire of much sharpness; the

battle of huge Morbole of great sharpness the battle of

Badgna, and the battle of Cnamros.

In the territory of Liathan by Muma, the dark lord of

slaughter died of plague: with the rude company of clean

grass in Oilean Arda Nemid.

They were not in security as regards oppression -the

progeny which Nemed fertilised -at the hands of Conaing

with hard body and at the hands of More son of Dela.

Two-thirds of their shapely children, it was not generous

against military weakness -a lasting tax through ages of

the world -two-thirds of corn and of milk.

To hard Mag Cetna of weapons, Over Eas Ruaid of

wonderful salmon, it was prepared against help, against

feasting (?) for them, every Samain eve.

Semeon son of joyful Iardan, Fergus pure and generous,

an effort of pride, Erglan son of warlike Beoan, were the

three freemen for their hosts.

The host of Ireland with her troop came - it was steppings

of power -a warrior-band who had blood through the body,

westward to the capture of Conaing's tower.

Conaing's tower with store of plunder of a union of the

crimes of hundreds of rapine, a fortress of assembly of the

art of the rage of the Fomoire of the sea.

The men of Ireland after its capture, with the great valour

of the courses before them, of these, tidings of loss, none

escaped except thirty of the children of Nemed.

They were not at peace regarding their inheritance, that

host with great valour of despair; of the thirty noble

warriors, every chieftain went his ways.

Into the land of Greeks, the remnant of the troop went

Semeon, it was a road of happiness: with wisdom over the

pre-eminent division went Fergus into Moin Conain.

Britan Mael son of the prince free the multitude of tracks

over streams, son of Lethderg from Leemag from whom are

the Britons of the world.

Bethach under steps of forms of fame died in Ireland

according to truthfulness: his ten wives behind him,

thereafter, for a space of twenty-three years.

Hundreds sprang from Semeon, the Greeks thought them a

numerous legion: they were not accepted by the warriors

but were enslaved by the Greeks.

This was the order of the chieftains, Carrying round bags

- it was not fraught with fame -[of] clay upon a rocky

stony mountain so that it was a plain rich in flowers and


They departed with no treacherous covenant upon the

wrathful very black sea, out of the captivity of hard

fosterage with ships and with bags.

These were their names of pride, of the kings, spirited,

with agility, Gann, Genann with choice men of good

divisions, Rudraige, Sengann, Slanga.

The seed of Semeon of a row of spear-divisions, a deed of

pure will of purity of action-deeds; The Galioin, men of the

very scanty orderings, The Fir Bolg and the Fir Domnann.

Two hundred years, whoso relates it, after Nemed, lustrous

his deeds of valour, till the Fir Bolg took the tuneful land

of Ireland, from the sea-pool of ocean.

Their sending, their measuring-out, endures; they divided

into five, without religion -without a falling for their

slender-sided sept -pleasant Ireland, from Uisnech.

Let us give adoration to most righteous Christ Who hath

subdued the strongest floods; His is the world with its

generation, His is every territory, His is Ireland.


The capture of Conaing's tower with valour against Conaing

the great, son of Faebar: the men of Ireland came to it,

three brilliant chieftains with them.

Erglan son of Beoan son of Starn, Semeon son of bitter

Iardan, before exile went the warrior of the plains, the son

of Nemed, Fergus Lethderg.

Three score thousands in brilliant wise over land and over

water, that is the tally who went from home, the children

of Nemed, to the capture.

Torinis, island of the tower, the fortress of Conaing son of

Faebar; by Fegus himself, a fighting of valour, Conaing son

of Faebar fell.

More son of Dela came there, it was for a help to Conaing:

Conaing fell previously, More thought it grave tidings.

Three score ships over the sea was the tally with which

More son of Dela came; there encountered them before they

came to land, the children of Nemed with powerful


The men of all Ireland in the battle, after the coming of

the Fomoraig, the sea-surge drowned them all, except

thrice ten men.

Erglan, Matach, Iartacht the noble, the three sons of Beoan

son of Starn, white his girdle, Bethach, Britan after the

battle, Baath the glorious, and Ibath.

Bechach, Bethach, Bronal, Pal, Goirthigorn, German, Glasa,

Ceran, Gobran, Gothiam pure, Gam, Dam, Ding and Deal.

Semeon, Fortecht, bright Gosten, Grimaig, Guillius with

cleverness, Taman, Turrue, and Glas, Feb, and Feran curl-


Three tens on the tuneful sailing went afterwards from

Ireland: in three they made divisions after the capture of

Conaing's Tower in the west.

The third of Bethach the victoriuous, tuneful fame, from

Toirinis to Boinn: it is he who died in Inis Fail, two years

after Britan.

The third of Semeon son of noble Erglan to Belach Conglais

with horror; the third of Britan, saith Ua Flaind, from that

to Conaing's Tower.

The children of Israel on a journey at that time, out of

Egypt; and the children of Gaedel Glas, were a-voyaging to


O Christ fair, with beauty of appearance, O KIng,

apportioner of the haven of Paradise, Into Thy heaven,

famous the place, O King of the workd, mayest thou choose





48. Now as for the Fir Bolg, they brought five chieftains with them, ut dixi

supra, to wit, Gann, Genann, Rudraige, Sengann, Slanga: those were

the fivce sons of Dela. Their fivce wives next, Anust, Liber, Cnucha,

Fuat, Etar: [unde dicitur]


Fuat, wife of Slanga, you do not think it crooked, Etar

wife to Gann with valour, Anust wife of Sengann of the

spears, Cnucha who was wife of pure Genann.

Liber wife of Rudraige of the Road, a people sweet, that

was not narrow: Rudraige, master of wiles, I suppose, Fuat

was his wife.




49. The Fir Bolg separated into three. With Slanga s. Dela s. Loth his third

[landed] in Inber Slaine: his Fifth is from Inber Colptha to Comar Tri

nUisce; a thousand men his tally. The second third landed in Inber

Dubglaisi with Gann and Sengann: two thousand were their tally, Gann

from Comar Tri nUisce to Belach Conglais, Sengann from Belach Conglais

to Luimneach - that is, over the two Fifths of Mumu. Genann and

Rudraige with a third of the host, they landed in Inber Domnann:

[whence they are called Fir Domnann}. Genann it is who was king over

the Fifth of Medb and Ailell; Rudraige over the Fifth of Conchobor -

other two thousand were his tally. Those are the Fir Bolg, the Fir

Domnann, and the Gailioin.

As to the Fir Domnann, the creek takes its name from them. The Fir

Bolg - they were named from their bags. The Gailioin, from the

multitude of their javelins were they named.

They made one Taking and one princedom, for they were five brethren,

the five sons of Dela s. Loth. And in one week they took Ireland,

[though the days were different]. On Saturday, the kalends of August,

Slanga landed in Inber Slaine. On Tuesday Gann and Sengann landed.

On Friday Genann and Rudraige landed: and thus is it one Taking,

though they were differently styled. The Gaileoin, from Slanga were

they named. From Gann and Sengann were the Fir Bolg named. The

Fir Domnann were named from deepening the earth: they were Genann

and Rudraige with their followers. For they are all called Fir Bolg,

and thirty-seven years was the length of their Lordship over Ireland.

The five sons of Dela were the five kings of the Fir Bolg, i.e., Gann,

Genann, Rudraige, Sengann, Slaine.

50. [Now these men, the Fir Bolg, were the progeny of Dela.] Slanga was

the eldest, s. Dela s. Loth s. Oirthet, s. Tribuat s. Gothorb s. Gosten s.

Fortech s. Semeon s. Erglan s. Beoan s. Starn s. Nemed s. Agnomain.

No king took, who was called "of Ireland," till the Fir Bolg came.

Nine kings of them took Ireland. Slanga, one year - it is he who died

of the Fir Bolg in Ireland at the first. Rudraige, two years, till he

died in Brug Bratruad. Gann and Genann, four years, till they died of

plague in Fremaind. Sengann, five years, till he fell at the hands of

Rindail s. Genann s. Dela. Rindail, six years, till he fell at the hands

of Fodbgenid s. Sengann s. Dela in Eba Coirpre. Fodbgen, four years,

till he fell in Mag Muirthemne at the hands of Eochu s. Rindail s.

Genann s. Dela. Eochu son of Erc, ten years. There was no wetting in

his time, save only dew: there was no year without harvest.

Falsehoods were expelled from Ireland in his time. By him was

executed the law of justice in Ireland for the fist time. Eochu son of

Erc fell at the hands of three sons of Nemed s. Badra: he is the first

king of Ireland who received his death-wound in Ireland. [Unde Colum

Cille cecinit "Dean moresnis a mic,"etc.]

51. The Fir Bolg gave them [the Tuatha De Danann] battle upon Mag Tuired;

they were a long time fighting that battle. At last it broke against the

Fir Bolg, and the slaughter pressed northward, and a hundred

thousand of them were slain westward to the strand of Eochaill. There

was the king Eochu overtaken, and he fell at the hands of the three

sons of Nemed. Yet the Tuatha De Danann suffered great loss in the

battle, and they left the king on the field, with his arm cut from him;

the leeches were seven years healing him. The Fir Bolg fell in that

battle all but a few, and they went out of Ireland in flight from the

Tuatha De Danann, into Ara, and Ile, and Rachra and other islands

besides. [it was they who led the Fomoraig to the second battle of

Mag Tuired]. And they were in [those islands] till the time of the

Provincials over Ireland, till the Cruithne drove them out. They came

to Cairbre Nia Fer, and he gave them lands; but they were unable to

remain with him for the heaviness of the impost which he put upon

them. Thereafter they came in flight before Cairbre under the

protection of Meldb and Ailill, and these gave them lands. This is the

wandering of the sons of Umor. [Oengus son of Umor was king over

them in the east], and from them are named those territories, Loch

CIme from Cime Four-Heads son of Umor, the Point of Taman in

Medraige from Taman son of Umor, the Fort of Oengus in Ara from

Oengus, the Stone-heap of Conall in Aidne from Conall, Mag Adair from

Adar, Mag Asail from Asal in Mumu also. Menn son of Umor was the

poet. They were in fortresses and in islands of the sea around

Ireland in that wise, till Cu Chulaind overwhelmed them.

52. Those are the kings of the Fir Bolg and their deaths; unde poeta



The Fir Bolg were here for a season in the great island of

the sons of Mil; the five chiefs which they brought with

them from over yonder I know their names.

A year had Slanga, this is true, till he died in his fine

mound; the first man of the Fir bolg of the peaks who died

in the island of Ireland.

Two years of Rudraige the Red, till he died in Brug Brat-

ruaid, four of Genann and of Gann, till plague slew them in


Five years of Sengann - they were reposeful -till Fiachu

son of Starn slew him; five others - it was through battle

-Fiachu Cendfhindan was king.

Fiachu Cendfhindan before all, his name endures for ever;

whiteheaded all, without reproach, were the kine of Ireland

in his presence.

Till he fell at the hands of red Rindail, he got six [years]

with his free host; The grandson of Dela fell then in Eba,

at the hands of Odbgen.

Four to noble Odbgen till the battle of Murthemne of the

nobles: Odbgen died without reproach at the hands of the

son of Erc, of lofty Eochu.

Ten years to Eochu son of Erc, he found not the border-

line of weakness: till they slew him on the battlefield, the

three sons of Nemed son of Badra.

TIll Rinnal grew, there was no point at all upon a weapon

in Ireland; upon harsh javelins there was no fair-covering,

but their being rushing-sticks.

In the time of Fodbgen thereafter there came knots

through trees: the woods of Ireland down till then were

smooth and very straight.

The pleasant Tuatha De Danann brought spears with them

in their hands: with them Eochu was slain, by the seed of

Nemed of strong judgement.

The names of the three excellent sons of Nemed were

Cessarb, Luam, and Luachra: it is they who slew the first

king with a point, Eochu son of Erc, in Ireland.

Thereafter the Tuatha De fought for the Fir Bolg, it was a

rought appearance. They took away their goods and their

lordship from the Men.


53. Fintan cecinit of the division of the Provinces -

The five parts of Ireland between sea and land, I entreat

the fair candles of every province among them.

From Drobais swift and fierce, is the holy first division to

the Boyne white and vast south from white Bairche.

From the Boyne, tuneful and whitely-glowing with

hundreds of harbours To the Meeting with sound of

assembled waves of the cold Three Waters.

From that same Meeting with nimble ..... From the Bel of

the brave Cu who is called 'glas.'

From Lumnech of huge ships -broad its surface -To

Drobais of armed multitudes, pure, on which a sea


Knowledgeable prostration, pathways are related, perfection

in the matter of correction towards a road into five.

The points of those provinces to Uisnech did they lead,

Each of them out of its .... ..... till it was five.





The progeny of Semeon were all the Gaileoin and Fir Domnann. Thirty

years after Genann and Rudraige, the Tuatha De Danann came into






54. Thereafter the progeny of Bethach s. Iarbonel the Soothsayer s. Nemed

were in the northern islands of the world, learning druidry and

knowledge and prphecy and magic, till they were expert in the arts of

pagan cunning.

55. So that they were the Tuatha De Danann who came to Ireland. In this

wise they came, in dark clouds. They landed on the mountains of

Conmaicne Rein in Connachta; and they brought a darkness over the

sun for three days and three nights.

56. They demanded battle of kingship of the Fir Bolg. A battle was fought

between them, to wit the first battle of Mag Tuired, in which a

hundred thousand of the Fir Bolg fell. Thereafter they [the TDD] took

the kingship of Ireland. Those are the Tuatha Dea - gods were their

men of arts, non-gods their husbandmen. They knew the incantations

of druids, and charioteers, and trappers, and cupbearers.

57. It is the Tuatha De Danann who brought with them the Great Fal, [that

is, the Stone of Knowledge], which was in Temair, whence Ireland bears

the name of "The Plain of Fal." He under whom it should utter a cry

was King of Ireland; until Cu Chulainn smote it, for it uttered no cry

under him nor under his fosterling, Lugaid, son of the three Finds of

Emain. And from that out the stone uttered no cry save under Conn

of Temair. Then its heart flew out from it [from Temair] to Tailltin, so

that is the Heart of Fal which is there. It was no chance which

caused it, but Christ's being born, which is what broke the owers of

the idols.

58. Now Nuadu Airgetlam was king over the Tuatha De Danann for seven

years before their coming into Ireland, until his arm was hewn from

him in the first battle of Mag Tuired. Eidleo s. Alldai, he was the first

man of the Tuatha De Danann who fell in Ireland, by the hand of

Nercon ua Semeoin, in the first battle of Mag Tuired. Ernmas, and

Echtach, and Etargal, and Fiachra, and Tuirill Piccreo fell in the same

battle. Bress s. Elada took the kingship of Ireland post, to the end of

seven years, till the arm of Nuadu was healed: a silver arm with

activity in every finger and every joint which Dian Cecht put upon

him, Credne helping him.

59. Tailltiu daughter of Mag Mor king of Spain, queen of the Fir Bolg, came

after the slaughter was inflicted upon the Fir Bolg in that first battle

of Mag Tuired to Coill Cuan: and the wood was cut down by her, so it

was a plain under clover-flower before the end of a year. This is that

Tailtiu who was wife of Eochu son of Erc king of Ireland till the

Tuatha De Danann slew him, ut praediximus: it is he who took her

from her father, from Spain; and it is she who slept with Eochu Garb

son of Dui Dall of the Tuatha De Danann; and Cian son of Dian Cecht,

whose other name was Scal Balb, gave her his son in fosterage, namely

Lug, whose mother was Eithne daughter of Balar. So Tailltiu died in

Tailltiu, and her name clave thereto and her grave is from the Seat of

Tailltiu north-eastward. Her games were performed every year and her

song of lamentation, by Lug. With gessa and feats of arms were they

performed, a fortnight before Lugnasad and a fortnight after: under

dicitur Lugnasad, that is, the celebration (?) or the festival of Lug.

Unde Oengus post multum tempus dicebat, "the nasad of Lug, or the

nasad of Beoan [son] of Mellan."

60. to return to the Tuatha De Danann. Nuadu Airgatlam fell in the last

battle of Mag Tuired, and Macha daughter of Ernmas, at the hands of

Balar the strong-smiter. In that battle there fell Ogma s. Elada at the

hands of Indech son of the De Dmnann, king of the Fomoire. Bruidne

and Casmael fell at the hands of Ochtriallach s. Indech. After the

death of Nuadu and of those men, Lug took the kingship of Ireland,

and his grandfather Balar the Strong-smiter fell at his hands, with a

stone from his sling. Lug was forty years in the kingship of Ireland

after the last battle of Mag Tuired, and there were twenty-seven years

between the battles.

61, Then Eochu Ollathair, the great Dagda, son of Elada, was eighty years in

the kingship of Ireland. His three sons were Oengus and Aed and

Cermat Coem; the three sons of Dian Cecht, Cu and Cethen and Cian.

62. Dian Cecht had three sons, Cu, Cehten and Cian. Miach was the fourth

son though many do not reckon him. His daughter was Etan the

Poetess, and Airmed the she-leech was the other daughter: and

Coirpre, son of Etan was the poet. Crichinbel and Bruidne and Casmael

were the three satirists. Be Chuille and Dianann were the two she-


The three sons of Cermad son of The Dagda were Mac Cuill, Mac Cecht,

Mac Griene: Sethor and Tethor and Cethor were their names. Fotla

and Banba and Eriu were their three wives.

Fea and Nemaind were the two wives of Net, a quo Ailech Neit.

Flidais, of whom is the "Cattle of Flidais"; her four daughters were

Argoen and Be Chuille and Dinand and Be Theite.

The two royal oxen were Fea and Femen, of whom are the Plain of Fea

and the Plain of Femen. Those were two faithful oxen.

Torc Triath was king of the boars, from whom is Mag Treitherne. Cirba

was king of the wethers, from whom is Mag Cirba. Math son of Umor

was the druid.

Badb and Macha and Anand, of whom are the Paps of Anu in Luachar

were the three daughters of Ernmas the she-farmer.

Goibniu the smith, Luicne the carpenter, Creidne the wright, Dian Cecht

the leech.

63, Delbaeth after The Dagda, ten years in the kingship of Ireland, till he

fell, with his son Ollom, at the hands of Caicher s. Nama, frater of

Nechtan. Fiacha s. Delbaeth took the kingship of Ireland after his

father, other ten years, till he fell, along with Ai s. Ollom, at the hands

of Eogan Inbir. Twenty-nine years had the grandsons of The Dagda in

the kingship of Ireland, to wit Mac Cuill, Mac Cecht, and Mac Greiene:

they divided Ireland into three parts. To them came the Gaedil to

Ireland, so that they fell by the hands of three sons of Mil, avenging

Ith, Cuailnge, and Fust, of the three sons of Breogan.

64, Nuadu Airgetlam s. Echtach s. Etarlam s. Ordam s. Aldui s. Tat s. Tavarn

s. Enda s. Baath s. Ebath s. Bethach s. Iarbonel s. Nemed s. Agnomain

s. Pamp s. Tat s. Sera s. Sru s. Esru s. Braimend s. Rathacht s.

Magoth s. Iafeth s. Noe.

Neit s. Indui s. Alldui s. Tat

Fiachna s. Delbaeth s. Ogma s. Elada s. Delbaeth s. Net

Ai s. Ollam s. Delbaeth s. Ogma s. Elada.

Lug s. Cian s. Dian Cecht s. Esarg s. Net s. Indui s. Alldui, he is the

first who brought chess-play and ball-play and horse-racing and

assembling into Ireland, unde quidam cecinit


Lug son of Ethliu, a cliff without a wrinkle, with him there

first came a lofty assembly: after the coming of Christ, it

is no idle proclamation Conchobar the wise and violent




Caicher and Nechtan, the two sons of Nama s. eochu Garb s. Dui Temen

s. Bres s. Delbaeth s. Net.

Siugmall s. Corpre Crom s. Eremair s. Delbaeth s. Ogma.

Oengus mac Oc nad Aed Caem and Cermait Milbel, those are the three

sons of the Dagda.

Corpre the poet s. Tuar s. Tuirell s. Cait Conaichend s. Orda s. Alldui

s. Tat


Galia s. Oirbsen s. Elloth s. Elada s. Delbaeth s. Net

Orbsen was the name of Manannan at first, and from him is named Loch

Orbsen in Connachta. When Manannan was being buried, it is then the

lake burst over the land, [through the burial].

The six sons of Delbaeth s. Ogma s. Elada s. Delbaeth s. Net, were

Fiachra, Ollam, Indui, Brian, Iucharba, Iuchar. Donann the daughter of

the same Delbaeth was mother of the three last, Brian, Iucharba and

Iuchar. These were the three gods of Danu, from whom is named the

Mountain of the Three gods. And that Delbaeth had the name Tuirell


Tuirill s. Cait moreover was the grandfather of Corpre the poet, and

Etan d. Dian Cecht was mother of that Tuirill.

The three sons of Cermait, moreover, ut diximus; Mac Cuill - Sethor,

the hazel his god; Mac Cecht - Tethor, the ploughshare his god; Mac

Greine - Cethor, the sun his god. Fotla was wife of Mac Cecht, Banba

of Mac Cuill, Eriu of Mac Greine. Those were the three daughters of

Fiachna son of Delbaeth. Ernmas daughter of Etarlam s. Nuada

Airgetlam was mother of those three women, and mother of Fiachna and


Ernmas had other three daughters, Badb and Macha and Morrigu,

whose name was Anand. Her three sons were Glon and Gaim and Coscar.

Boind daughter of Delbaeth s. elada.

Fea and Neman, the two wives of Net s. Indiu, two daughters of Elemar

of the Brug.

Uillend s. Caicher s. Nuadu Airgetlam.

Bodb of the Mound of Femen, s. Eochu Gab s. Dui Temen s. Bres s.

Elada s. Delbaeth s. Net.

Abean s. Bec-Felmas s. Cu s. Dian Cecht, the poet of Lug.

En s. Bec-En s. Satharn s. Edleo s. Alda s. Tat s. Taburn.

At Tat s. Tabourn the choice of the Tuatha De Danann unite. Of

that the historian sang -


Ireland with pride, with weapons, hosts spread over her

ancient plain, westward to the sunset were they

plunderers, her chieftains of destruction around Temair.


Thirty years after Genand goblin hosts took the fertile

land; a blow to the vanquished People of Bags was the

visit of the Tuatha De Danann.

It is God who suffered them, though He restrained them -

they landed with horror, with lofty deed, in their cloud of

mighty combat of spectres, upon a mountain of Conmaicne

of Connacht.

Without distinction to descerning Ireland, Without ships, a

ruthless course the truth was not known beneath the sky

of stars, whether they were of heaven or of earth.

If it were diabolic demons the black-cloaked agitating

expedition, it was sound with ranks, with hosts: if of men,

it was the proteny of Bethach.

Of men belonging to law (is) the greeborn who has the

strong seed: Bethach, a swift warrior-island (?) son of

Iarbonel son of Nemed.

They cast no assembly or justice about the place of Fal to

the sunset: there was fire and fighting at last in Mag


The Tuatha De, it was the bed of a mighty one, around the

People of Bags fought for the kingship: in their battle with

abundance of pride, troops of hundreds of thousands died.

The sons of Elada, glory of weapons, a wolf of division

against a man of plunder: Bres from the Brug of Banba of

wise utterance, Dagda, Delbaeth, and Ogma.

Eriu, though it should reach a road-end, Banba, Fotla, and

Fea, Neman of ingenious versicles, Danann, mother of the


Badb and Macha, greatness of wealth, Morrigu - springs of

craftiness, sources of bitter fighting were the three

daughters of Ernmas.

Goibniu who was not impotent in smelting, Luichtne, the

free wright Creidne, Dian Cecht, for going roads of great

healing, Mac ind Oc, Lug son of Ethliu.

Cridinbel, famous Bruinde, Be Chuille, shapely Danand,

Casmael with bardism of perfecdtion, Coirpre son of Etan,

and Etan.


The grandsons of the Dagda, who had a triple division (?)

divided Banba of the bugle-horns; let us tell of the

princes of excellence of hospitality, the three sons of

Cermat of Cualu.

Though Ireland was multitudes of thousands they divided

her land into thirds: great chieftains of deeds of pride,

Mac Cuill, Mac Cecht, Mac Greine.

He swept them clean from their land, did the Son of God,

from the royal plain which I make manifest: for all the

valour of their deeds, of their clear division, their seed is

not over Ireland.

It is Eochu without enchantment of leapings who fashions

the distinction of his good quatrains; but knowledge of the

warriors when he relates it, though he enumerates them,

he adores them not.

Adore ye the name of the King who measured you, who

apportions every truth which he (Eochu) narrates: who

hath released every storm which we expect, who hath

fashioned the pleasant land of Ireland.




Tanaide cecinit


The Tuatha De Danann under obscurity, a people without a

covenant of religion; whelps of the wood that has not

withered, people of the blood of Adam's flesh.

Nobles yonder of the strong people, people of the withered

summit, let us relate, in the course in which we are, their

periods in their kingdom.

A space of seven years oq Nuadu noble-stately over the

fair-haired compnay, the rule of the man large-breasted,

flaxen-maned, before his coming into Ireland.

In Mag Tuired, heavy with doom, where fell a champion of

the battle, from the white defender of the world -his arm

of princedom was lopped off

Seven years of Bres, which was not a white space, through

its fair prospect for the song-abbot, in the princedom over

the plain, generous in nuts, till the arm of Nuadu was



Nuadu after that twenty years, he brought the fairy-folk

a-hosting, till Lug the spear-slaughterous was made king -

the many-crafted who cooled not.

Forty to Lug - it was balanced -in the kingship over the

Palace of Banba; he reached no celestial bed of innocence;

eighty to The Dagda.

Ten years to vehement Delbaeth till one wise in course and

royal (?) arrived, faultness over the brink of the ocean -

ten other to Fiachna.

Twenty-nine years, I have proclaimed it, over every peace-

land of Ireland, in the kingdom over Banba eduringly great

had the grandons of The Dagda skilled in denseng.

Thereafter the sons of Mil came, they arrived to redden

them -children of the great hero who burst out of Spain

without growing cold.

Till the deedful Gaedil wounded them, without a troop,

through their cunning, it is not a matter of fable or of

folly that small was the weakness of the Tuatha.




Fland Mainstrech cecinit


Hearken, ye sages without sorrow, if it be your will that I

relate the deaths yonder, with astuteness, of the choie of

the Tuatha De Danann.

Edleo son of Alldai yonder, the first man of the Tuatha De

Danann who fell in virgin Ireland, by the hand of Nerchon

grandson of Semeon.

Ernams, high her valour, fell, Fiachra, Echtach, Etargal,

Tuirill Picreo of Baile Breg in the first batle of Mag


Elloth with battle fell -the father, great and rough, of

Manannan -and perfect, fair Donand, at the hands of De

Domnand of the Fomoraig.

Cethen of Cu died of horror in Aircheltra; Cian far from

his home did Brian, Iucharba dn Iuchar slay.

Of a stroke of the pure sun died Cairpre the great, son of

Etan: Etan died over the pool of sorrow for white-headed


In Mag Tuired, it was through battle Nuadu Airgetlam fell:

and Macha - that was after Samain -by the hand of Balar

the strong-smiter.

Ogma fell, without being weak at the hands of Indech son

of De Domnann: breasted Casmael the good fell at the

hands of Oichtriallach son of Indech.

Now of painful plague died Dian Cecht and Goibnenn the

smith: Liughne the wright fell along with them by a strong

fiery dart.

Creidne the pleasant artificer was drowned on the lake-sea,

the sinister pool, fetching treasures of noble gold to

Ireland from Spain.

Bress died in Carn ui Neit by the treachery of Lug, with

no fullness of falsehood: for him it was a cause of quarrel

indeed drinking bog-stuff in the guise of milk.

De Chuille and faithful Dianann, both the farmeresses died,

an evening with druidry, at the last, by gray demons of


He fell on the strand eastward in the trenches of Rath

Ailig, Did Indui the great, son of pleasant Delbaith, at the

hands of Gann, a youth bold, white-fisted.

Fea, lasting was his fame, died at the end of a month after

his slaying at the same stronghold - we think it fitting -

for sorrow for Indui the white-haired.

Boind died at the combat at the wellspring of the son of

noble Nechtan: Aine daughter of the Dagda died for the

love that she gave to Banba.

Cairpre fell - remember thou! by the hand of Nechtan son

of Nama: Nechtan fell by the poison at the hands of

Sigmall, grandson of Free Midir.

Abean son of cold Bic-felmais, the bard of Lug with full

victory, he fell by the hand of Oengus without reproach in

front of Midir of mighty deeds.

Midir son if Indui yonder fell by the hand of Elemar: fell

Elemar, fit for fight, at the hands of Oengus the perfect.

Brian, Iucharba, and Iuchar there, the three gods of the

Tuatha De Danann were slain at Mana over the bright sea

by the hand of Lug son of Ethliu.

Cermait son of the divine Dagda Lug ... (?) wounded him it

was a sorrow of grief upon the plain in the reign of Eochu


Cermat Milbel the mighty fell at the hands of harsh Lug

son of Ethliu, in jealousy about his wife, great the fashion,

concerning whom the druid lied unto him.

by the hand of Mac Cecht without affection the harper fell:

moreover Lug fell over the wave, by the hand of Mac Cuill

son of Cermat.

Aed son of The Dagda fell at the hands of Corrchend the

fair, of equal valour; without deceit, it was a desire of

strictness, after he had gone to his wife iniquitously.

Corrcend from Cruach fell -the harsh very swift champion,

by the stone which he raised on the strand over the grave

of shamefaced Aed.

Cridinbel squiting and crooked fell -the chief spell-weaver

of the Tuatha De Danann -of the gold which he found in

the idle Bann, by the hand of The Dagda, grandson of


As he came from cold Alba he, the son of The Dagda of

ruddy form, at the outlet of Boinn, over here, there was

Oengus drowned.

The only son of Manannan from the bay, the first love of

the aged woman, the tender youth fell in the plain at the

hands of Idle Bennan, on the plain of Breg.

Net son of Indui and his two wives, Badb and Neman

without deceit, were slain in Ailech without blame by

Nemtuir the Red, of the Fomoraig.

Fuamnach the white (?) who was wife of Midir, Sigmall and

Bri without faults, In Bri Leith, it was full vigour, they

were burnt by Manannan.

The son of Allot fell, with valour, the rich treasure,

Manannan, in the battle in harsh Cuillend by the hand of

Uillend of the red eyebrows.

Uillend with pride fell at the hands of Mac Greine with

pure victory: the wife of the brown Dagda perished of

plague of the slope in Liathdruim.

The Dagda died of a dart of gore in the Brug - it is no

falsehood -wherewith the woman Cethlenn gave him mortal

hurt, in the great battle of Mag Tuired.

Delbaeth and his son fell at the hands of Caicher, the

noble son of Nama: Caicher fell at the idle Boinn, at the

hands of Fiachna son of Delbaeth.

Fiacha and noble Ai fell before sound Eogan of the Creek:

Eogan of the cold creek fell before Eochaid the knowing,

hard as iron.

Eochaid of knowledge fell thereafter at the hands of Ed

and of Labraid: Labraid, Oengus, Aed, fell at the hands of

Cermat of form all fair.

Eriu and Fotla with pride, Mac Greine and Banba with

victory, Mac Cuill, Mac Cecht with purity in the battle of

Temair of clear wave.

Mac Cecht at the hands of noble Eremon: Mac Cuill, of

perfect Eber: Eriu yonder, at the hands of Suirge

thereafter: Mac Greine of Amorgen.

Fotla at the hands of Etan with pride, of Caicher, Banba

with victory, Whatever the place wherein they sleep, those

are the deaths of the warriors; hear ye.



Those are the adventures of the Tuatha De Danann.



[I have been unable to locate the R1 redaction of the final

section of the Lebor Gabala Erren as published by the Irish

Texts Society. The following tract is a much later redaction

by O'Clery - but it does give the end of the tale, in which the

Sons of Mil sail to Ireland, conquer the Tuatha de Danaan

and divide the island between themselves.]




After the death of Mil, as we have said, Emer Donn and Eremon,

his two sons, took rule and chief government of Spain between


There was a father's brother of Mil, Ith son of Bregan, with

them; he was expert and accomplished in knowledge and in

learning. Once when Ith, of a clear winter's evening was on top

of Bregan's Tower, contemplating and looking over the four

quarters of the world, it seemed to him that he saw a shadow and

a likeness of a land and lofty island far away from him Me went

back to his brethren, and told them what he had seen; and said

that he was mindful and desirous of going to see the land the had

appeared to him. Breg son of Bregan said that it was no land he

had seen but clouds of heaven, and he was hindering Ith from

going on that expedition. Ith did not consent to stay, however.

Then Ith brought his ship on the sea, and came himself with

his son Lugaid son of Ith, and others of his people in it. They

sailed toward Ireland, and their adventures on sea are not

related, save only that they took harbor in Bentracht of Mag

Itha. The neighbors went to the shore to interview them, and each

of them told news to the other in the Irish language. Ith asked

them the name of the land to which he had come, and who was in

authority over it. "Inis Elga," they said; "Mac

Cuill, Mac Cecht, and Mac Greine are the names of its


It happened in that day that there were many chieftains and

nobles o Ireland in Ailech Neid, making peace between Mac Cuill

and his brethren; for they said that he had an excess of the

goods of Fiachna son of Delbaeth, who had died previously. When

Ith heard that, he went with his son and with two-thirds of his

people to Ailech. The kings welcomed him when he reached the

assembly, and after he was a while among them, they told him the

matter about which they were in opposition and contention between

them. And he said to them:

"Do just righteousness. It is fitting for you to maintain

a good brotherhood. It is right for you to have a good

disposition. Good is the land and the patrimony you inhabit;

plenteous her harvest, her honey, her fish, her wheat, and her

other grain. Moderate her heat and her cold. All that is

sufficient for you is in her." Then he took farewell of them

and went to his ship.

The nobles plotted to kill him, in jealousy for Ireland, and

for the testimony of praise he gave to their island; and they

sent a great number to follow him, so that he was wounded to

death in Mag Itha, and from him the plain took its name. He

reached his ship wounded and bleeding, by the valor and bravery

of his people; and he died with them in his ship on the sea.

Then they reached Spain and showed the body of Ith to his

brethren, and they were anguished and sorrowful at his dying

thus. Then the sons of Mil and the posterity of Gaedel in general

thought it was fitting and proper for them to go and avenge their

brother on the Tuatha De Danann. They decided on this at last:

they collected their warriors and their men of valor from every

place where they were, through the lands and the districts, until

they were in one place in Brigantia, numerous and fully

assembled. Then the sons of Mil, with their brethern and kinsmen,

and their people in general, brought their ships on the sea to go

to Ireland to avenge their bad welcome on the Tuatha De Dannann.

Three score and five ships was the number of the expedition;

forty chiefs the number of their leaders, with Donn son of Mil at

their head. These are the names of their chiefs.

Emer Donn ,Eremon,Eber Finn, Ir, Amergin, Colptha, Airech Febra,

Erannan, Muimne, Luigne, Laigne, Palap, Er. Orba, Feron, Fergin,

Eber son if Ir, Brega, Cuala, Cooley, Blad, Fuad, Buirthemne,

Eblinne, Nar, Lugaid, Lui, Bile, Buas, Bres, Buaigne, Fulman,mantan,

Caicer, Suirge, En, Un, Etan, Sobairce, Sedga, Goisten.

To commemorate the names of those chiefs and leaders, this was

said; Flann Mainistrech (Poet died A.D.1056) composed it:

The chiefs of the voyage over the sea

By which the sons of Mil came,

I have in recollection during my life,

Their names without lie.

Donn Eremon, noble Emer,

Ir, Amergin without [partiality,

Colptha, Airech, Febra the keen,

Erannan, Muimme fine and smooth.

Luigne, Laigne, Palap the lucky,

Er. Orba Feron, Fergin,

Eber son if Ir. Brega, I shall say,

Cuala, Cualgne, Blad rough and strong.

Fuad and Muirthemne with fame,

Eblinne, Nar, Buas with battle,

Bres, Buaigne, and Fulman.

Mantan, Caicer, slender Suirge,

En, Un and rigid Etan,

Sobairce, Sedga of spears,

And Goisten the champion.

The conquered noble Ireland

Against the Tuatha De of great magic,

In vengeance for Ith of the steeds-

Thirty, ten, and one chieftain.

As for the sons of Mil, they sailed in a great expedition on

the sea to Ireland, and did not pause in the course until they

saw at a distance the island from the sea. And when they saw

Ireland, their warriors made a contention of rowing and sailing

to their utmost in their eagerness and anxiety to reach it; so

that Ir son of Mil advanced a wave before every other ship by

reason of his strength and valor. So Eber Donn son of Mil, the

eldest of them, was jealous and said:

It is no good deed

Ir before Ith to proceed-

That is before Lugaid son of Ith, for Lugaid had the name

Ith. Then the oar that was in the hand of Ir split, so that Ir

fell backwards across the thwart and broke his back there He died

on the following night, and they preserved his body so long as

they were on the sea, and buried it afterwards in Scellic of

Irras Desceirt of Corco Dibne. Sorrowful were Eremon, Eber Finn

and Amergin at the death of their brother; and they said, as it

were out of one mouth, it was right that Eber Donn should not

enjoy the land about which he was envious of his brother, that is

of Ir.

The sons of Mil advanced to a landing in Inber Stainge. The

Tuatha De Danann did not allow them to come to the land there,

for they had not held parley with them. By their druidry they

caused it to appear to the sons of Mil that the region was no

country or island, territory or land at all, in front of them.

They encircled Ireland three times, till at last they took the

harbor at Inber Scene; a Thursday as regards the day of the week,

on the day before the first of May, the seventeenth day of the

moon; the Year of the World 3500.

Then they came at the end of three days thereafter to Sliab

Mis. Banba met them in Sliab Mis, with the hosts of druidry and

cunning. Amergin asked her name. " Banba," said she,

"and it is from my name that Banba is given as a name for

this country." And she asked a petition from them, that her

name should remain always on the island. That was granted to her.

Then they had converse with Fodla in Eblinne, and the poet

Amergin asked her name of her in like manner. "Fodla,"

said she, "and from me is the land named." And she

prayed that her name might remain on it, and it was granted to

her as she requested. They held converse with Eriu in Usnech of

Mide. She said to them, "Warriors," said she, "

welcome to you. It is long since your coming is prophesied. Yours

will be the island forever. There is not better island in the

world. No race will be more perfect than your race."

"Good is that," said Anergin,

"Not to her do we give thanks for it," said Donn,

"but to our gods and to our power."

"It is naught to thee," said Eriu; "thou shat

have no gain of this island nor will thy children. A gift to me,

O sons of Mil and the children of Bregan, that my name may be

upon this island!"

"It will be its chief name for ever," said Amergin,

"namely Eriu(Erin)."

The Gaedels went to Tara. No Drum Cain was its name at that

time among the Tuatha De Danann, Liathdruim was its name among

the Fir Bolg. There were there kings before them in Laithdruim;

namely, Mac Cuill, Mac Cecht and Mac Greine. The sons of Mil

demanded a battle or kingship or judgment from them.

They adjudged to the sons of Mil that they should have

possession of the island to the end of nine days ,to depart, or

to submit, or to prepare for battle. "If my advice were

carried out," said Donn son of Mil, "it is a battle it

would be." The sons of Mil did not grant the respite they

sought to the Tuatha De Danann..

"We give," said the kings, "the judgment of

your own poets to you, for if they give a false judgment against

us they will die on the spot."

"Give the judgment, Amergin; "said Donn.

"Speak it," said Amergin. "Let the land be left

to them till we come again to take it by force."

"Whither shall we go?" said Eber Donn.

"Over nine waves," said Amergin; and he said this:

The men you have found are in possession:

Over the nine green-necked waves

Of the sea advance ye:

Unless by your power then be planted,

Quickly let the battle be prepared.

I assign the possession

Of the land ye have found:

If ye love concede this award,

If ye love not concede it not-

It is I that say this to you.

" If it were my counsel that were followed," said

Donn son of Mil, "battle it would be." Nevertheless the

sons of Mil went by the advice and judgment of Amergin from

Liathdruim to Inber Scene, the place where they had left their

ships, and passed over nine waves. "Let us trust to the

powers," said the druids, " that they may never reach

Ireland." With that the druids cast druidic winds after

them, so great was the story; so that the storm took them

westward in the ocean until they were weary. "A druid's wind

is that," said Donn son of Mil. "It is indeed said

Amergin, "unless it be higher than the mast; find out for us

if it be so." Erannan the youngest son of Mil went up the

mast, and said that it was not over them. With that he fell on

the planks of the ship from the mast, so that they shattered his


"A shame to our men of learning is it," said Donn,

"not to suppress the druidic wind."

"No shame it shall be," said Amergin, rising up; and

he said:

I invoke the land of Ireland.

Much-coursed be the fertile sea,

Fertile be the fruit-strewn mountain,

Fruit-strewn be the showery wood,

Showery be the river of water-falls,

Of water-falls be the lake of deep pools,

Deep pooled be the hill-top well,

A well of the tribes be the assembly,

An assembly of the kings be Tara,

Tara be the hill of the tribes,

The tribes of the sons of Mil,

Of mil be the ships the barks,

Let the lofty bark be Ireland,

Lofty Ireland Darkly sung,

An incantation of great cunning;

The great cunning of the wives of Bres,

The wives of Bres of Buaigne;

The great lady Ireland,

Eremon hath conquered her,

Ir, Eber have invoked for her.

I invoke the land of Ireland.

Immediately a tranquil calm came to them on the sea. Said Donn,

"I will put under the edge of spears and swords the warriors

that are in the land now, only let me land." The wind

increased on them thereupon, so that it separated from them the

ship in which was Donn; and he was drowned at the Dumacha.

Twenty-four warriors of valor, twelve women, and four

mercenaries, with their folk are the number that were drowned

with Donn in that ship. After that Donn was buried in the

Dumacha; so that from him "Tech Duin" is called, and

there is his own gravemound and the gravemound of everyone who

was drowned of the chieftains of his people with him, in that

place. Now Dil daughter of Mil, Eremon buried her, " for the

love he had for her, so that he said in putting a sod on her,

" This is a sod on a "dear one" (dil)"said

he. These are the chieftains who were drowned with Donn at that

time: Bile son of Brige, Airech Febra, Buss, Bres, and Buagne. Ir

was buried in Scellic of Irras, as we have said above, Erannan

died in the creek after going to contemplate the wind, and after

breaking his bones on the deck. Eight chieftains were their

losses among their nobles up to then.

In the night in which the sons of Mil came to Ireland was the

burst of Loch Luigdech over the land in West Munster. When Lugaid

son of Ith was bathing in the lake and Fial daughter of Mil his

wife was bathing in the river that flows out of the lake, Lugaid

went to the place where was the woman, he being naked; and when

she looked on him thus she died of shame at once, and from her is

named the river with its creek. Downcast was Lugaid after the

woman's death, so that he said:

Sit we here over the strand,

Stormy the cold;

Chattering in my teeth,--a great tragedy

Is the tragedy that has reached me.

I tell you a woman has died

Whom fame magnifies'

Fial her name, from a warrior's nakedness

Upon the clean gravel.

A great death is the death that has reached me,

Harshly prostrated me;

The nakedness of her husband, she looked upon him

Who rested here.

Six woman of their nobles were their losses on the sea and

land from their setting out from Spain till then. These are their

names; Buan wife of Bile; Dil wife of Donn; Scene, he

woman-satirist, wife of Amergin White-Knee (she died with them on

the sea while they were coming to Ireland; so that Amergin said,

"The harbor where we land, the name of Scene will be on

it". That was true, for from her is named Inber Scene); Fial

wife of Lugaid son of Ith; the wife of Ir and the wife of

Muirthemne son of Bregan, were the other two.

When the sons of Mil reached the land in the creek we have

mentioned, and when they had buried the troop of their nobles who

had died of them, Eremon and Eber Finn divided the fleet with

their chieftains and servants in two between them. After that

Eremon sailed with thirty ships, keeping Ireland on his left

hand, and he landed in Inber Colptha. These are the chieftains

that were with him: Eber son if Ir, Amergin the poet, Palap,

Muimne,Luigne, laigne, Brega, Muirthemne, Fuad, Cualgne, Colptha,

Goisten, Sedga, Suirge, and Sobairce. The three last were

champions. These are the slaves that were with Eremon: Aidne, Ai,

Asal, Mide, Cuib, Cera, Ser, Slan, Ligen, Dul, Trega, Line.

On putting his right foot on the shore at Inber Colptha, it

was then Amergin spoke this rhapsody:


I am a wind on the sea

I am a wave of the ocean

I am the roar of the sea,

I am a powerful ox,

I am a hawk on a cliff,

I am a dewdrop in the sunshine,

I am a boar for valor,

I am a salmon in pools,

I am a lake in a plain,

I am the strength of art,

I am a spear with spoils that wages battle,

I am a man that shapes fire for a head.

Who clears the stone-place of the mountain?

What the place in which the setting of the sun lies?

Who has sought peace without fear seven times?

Who names the waterfalls?

Who brings his cattle from the house of Tethra?

What person, what god Forms weapons in a fort?

In a fort that nourishes satirists,

Chants a petition, divides the Ogam letters,

Separates a fleet, has sung praises?

A wise satirist.

He sang afterwards to increase fish in the creeks:

Fishful sea-

Fertile land-

Burst of fish-

Fish under wave-

With courses of birds--

Rough Sea-

A white wall--

With hundreds of salmon-

Broad Whale-

A port song-

A burst of fish.

As for Eber Finn son of Mil, he stayed in the south with

thirty ships with him, until they came in the hosts of the

battles that were fought between them and the Tuatha De Danann.

These are the chieftains that were with Eber; Lugaid son of Ith,

Er. Orba, Feron, Fegana the four sons of Eber, Cuala, Blad,

Ebleo, Nar, En, Un Etan, Caicher, Mantan, Fulman. The six

last,-En, Un, etc. Were champions. These are the slaves that were

with him; Adar, Aigne, Deist, Deala, Cliu, Morba, Fea, Liffe,

Femen, Feara, Meda, and Obla.

When the sons of Mil reached their landing-place they made no

delay until they reached Sliab Mis; and the battle of Sliab Mis

was fought between them and the Tuatha De Danann, and the victory

was with the sons of Mil. Many of the Tuatha De Dannan were

killed in that battle. It is there that Fas wife of Un son of

Uicce fell, from whom is named Glen Faise. Scota wife of Mil fell

in the same valley; from her is named " Scota's Grave",

between Sliab Mis and the sea. The sons of Mil went afterwards to

Tailltiu, and another battle was fought between them and the

Tuatha De Danann there. Vehemently and whole-heatedly was it

fought, for they were from morning to evening contending,

bonehewing , and mutilating one another; till the three kings and

the three queens of Ireland fell there- Mac Cecht by Eremon, Mac

Cuill by Eber Finn, Mac Greine by Amergin, Eriu by Suyirge, Banba

by Caicer, and Fodla by Etan. Those were the deaths of their

chiefs and princes. After that the Tuatha De Danann were routed

to the sea and the sons of Mil and their host were a long time

following the rout. There fell, however two noble chiefs of the

people of the sons of Mil in inflicting the rout, namely, Fuad in

Sliab Fuait, and Cualgne in Sliab Cualgne, together with other

warriors besides, who fell together on both sides. When the

Tuatha De Danann were crushed and expelled in the battles that

were fought between them, the sons of Mil took the lordship of


After that there arose a contention between the sons of Mil

about the kingship, that is between Eremon and Eber, so that

Amergin was brought to make peace between them. He said that the

inheritance of the eldest, of Donn, should go to the youngest, to

Eremon, and his inheritance to Eber after him; Eber did not

accept that, but insisted on dividing Ireland. Eremon agreed to

do so. Accordingly Ireland was divided in two between them, the

northern half to Eremon, from Srub Brain to the Boyne, the

southern half to Eber, from the Boyne to Tonn Clidna. There were

five chieftains in the division of each of them. With Eremon

first, Amergin, Sedga, Goisten, Suirge, and Sobairce. Now in that

year these forts were dug by Eremon and his people: Rath

Beothaig, above the Nore in Argat Ros; Rath Oinn, in the

territory of Cula, by Eremon; the Causeway of Inber Mor, in the

territory of Ui Enechglais, by Amergin; the building of Dun Nair,

in Sliab Modoirn, by Goisten; the building of Dun Delginnse, in

the territory of Cuala, by Sedga; the building of his fort by

Sobairce in Morbolg of Dal Riada; the building of Dun Edar by

Suirge. These are the forts built by Eber and these the

chieftains that were with him: Etan, Un, Mantan, Fulman, and

Caicer were his five chieftains. Rath Uaman, in Leinster, was dug

by Eber; Rath Arda Suird by Etan son of Uicce; the building of

Carrig Blaraige by Mantan; the building of Carrig Fethnaide by Un

son of Uicce; the building of Dun Ardinne by Caicer; the building

of Rath Riogbard, in Muiresc,by Fulman.

So that for the commemoration of certain of the aforesaid

matters this was said:

Expeditions of the sons of Mil over sea

From Spain of clear ships,

They took , it is no deed of falsehood,

The battle-plain of Ireland in one day.

This is the tale that they went

on sea, With multitude of wealth and people,

To a brave show God brought them,

With sixty-five choice vessels.

They landed at the noble creek

Which is called the White Rampart;

It was a cause of sickness, and attempt without failure,

From the sight of the warrior Lugaid.

From thence it is from that out

The creek of Fail of generous bands;

From the day she died in white Banba--

Fial daughter of Mil of Spain.

At the end of three days, brilliant preparation,

The Tuatha De fought

The battle of Sliab Mis, --glory that was not failure,

Against the great sons of Mil.

They won, a saying without reproach,

The battle against fair-headed Banba,

Where died Fas woven in verse,

With the very fair daughter of Pharaoh.

Before the end of a year, it was lasting fame,

Among the chieftains of the heavy hosts,

Into twice six divisions, a pleasant course,

They afterwards divided Ireland.

Over the north side a progress without sorrow,

Eremon was taken as high prince;

From Srub Brain, which verses adorn,

Every tribe to the Boyne.

These are the five guardians of control

Whom he accepted to accompany him;

Amergin, Sedga also, Goisten, Sobairce,


Eber, son of Mil grace-abounding,

takes the southern half,

From the eternal Boyne, choice the share,

To the wave of the daughter of Genann.

These are the five, with hundreds of exploits,

The chiefs who were subordinate to him;

Etan, and Un of joyous rule,

Mantan, Fulman, and Caicer.

In this same year

The royal forts were dug,

By the sons of Mil,--honor of pledges,

After the full division of Ireland's island.

Rath Oinn, Rath Beothaig here,

By Eremon in Argat Ros;

In Sliab Mis, after a series of omens,

The building of Dun Nair by Goisten.

Suirge wide-extended, who displayed valor,

Built the high Dun Edar;

And the sounding, glorious achievement,

Of his fort by Sobairce.

By Eber of bright valor, was dug

Rath Uaman in the plain of Leinster;

Rath Arda Suird, it enriched him,

Was dug by Etan son of Uicce.

Rath Carraig Fetha thus,

Was made by Un son of Uicce;

And by Mantan,--glorious deed,

The founding of Carrig Blaraige.

Rath Rigbard in good Muiresc,

Very keen Fulman built it;

Caicer of battles, a pleasant fulfilment,

Took Dun Inne in the west of Ireland.

These are their deeds of valor,

Of the clear, glorious, great royal host;

It was a great achievement, after battle , without stain;

Theirs was every profit, every expedition.

Of the adventures of the Gaedels from the time when they went

from Scythia till they took Ireland and the division of Ireland

between them, with their chieftains, the poet Roigne Roscadach

son of Ugaine Mor said to Mal son of Ugaine his brother, when Mal

questioned him: "Sing thy description in the great knowledge

of Ireland, O Roigne," Roigne answered him and said:

O noble son of Ugaine,

How does one arrive at knowledge of Ireland,

The conquest of its company?

Before they overflowed Scythia

They reached the host-king of Shinar;

They approached Egypt,

Where Cingeris was extinguished,

So that a great troop was destroyed,

Who died in the Red Sea.

They flowed through a space very faithful,

With Pharaoh fought;

Niul contracts with Scota,

The conception of our fathers.

They took the name "Gaedels,"

The name "Scots" spreads,

The fair daughter of Pharaoh.

They overspread lands,

Burst into Scythia,

Determined long combat--

The Children of Nel and Noenbal.

Golam was a young lord,

Who slew the son of Neman,

Escaped to Egypt,

Where was Nectanebus.

Pharaoh was welcoming

To Golam; gave

A marriage Nectanebus,

Scota was at cot's head;

A name was changed from them.

They advanced past Africa,

Good was the man under whom they trembled;

Fenius Farsad, the keen,

Well he spread for us a lasting name.

They approached Spain,

Where was born a numerous progeny,

Donn, Airech, Amergin,

Eber, Ir, Colptha himself,

Eremon, Erannan,

The eight sons of Golam.

Mil's renown came upon them,

The sons of Mil wealthy;

Their scholars resolved,

Divided ships,

The Men returned from the burial of Fial.

They divided Ireland,

In twice six, an inheritance of chieftains.

Seek the truth of every law,

Relate sharply the inquiry , O Son!

After Eremon and Eber had divided the chieftains, they had two

distinguished artists who had come into their company from the

east, namely, a poet and a harper. Cir son of Cis was the poet,

Cennfinn the harper. They cast a lot on them to know which of

them should be with each of them; so that, through the decision

of the lot, the harper went southward to Eber and thence melody

of music and harmony followed in the Southern Half of Ireland.

The poet went to Eremon, and knowledge of poetry and song

followed him in the North ever after. To commemorate this it was


The two sons of Mil, famous in dignity,

Took Ireland and Britain;

With them there followed hither

A gentle poet and a harper.

Cior son of Cis, the bright poet,

The name of the harper Cennfin;

With the sons of Mil, of bright fame,

The harper sounded his harp.

The princes, with many battles,

Took the kingdom of Ireland;

They did it with brightness, merry the sound,

Eber and Eremon.

They cast a lot swiftly

About the great men of art;

So that there fell to the lot of the southerner

The harper, just and fair.

Melody of music more beautiful than any company

Is from the southward in the south of Ireland;

It was thus it will be to the fortunate Judgment

With the famous seed of Eber.

There fell to the lot of the northerner

The man of learning with great excellence;

Hence the tribes who brought him boast

Knowledge of poetry and learning.

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